(Aprobado como Proyecto de Ley por el Consejo de Ministros celebrado el viernes, 24 de mayo de 2013)

Ahora inicia su tramitación parlamentaria para convertirse en Ley. Se trata de una ley integral y completa, que engloba la labor de prácticamente todos los Departamentos ministeriales, que quiere facilitar toda la actividad emprendedora y empresarial: desde la constitución de empresas y su régimen fiscal, al apoyo a la financiación y a la necesidad de hacer más fluida la relación entre las empresas y las Administraciones Públicas, y, llegado el caso, de proporcionarles mayores facilidades a la hora de poder solventar dificultades empresariales a través de distintas medias ligadas a lo que se llama “segunda oportunidad”.

Constituye una de las reformas estructurales más importantes del programa reformista del Gobierno. Complementa al Real Decreto Ley de 22 de febrero de 2013 de medidas laborales de apoyo al emprendedor y de estímulo del crecimiento y de la creación de empleo, a través del cual se aprobaron determinadas medidas de apoyo al emprendedor, anunciadas por el presidente del Gobierno en el Debate sobre el Estado de la Nación.

El objeto de la futura Ley es apoyar al emprendedor y la actividad empresarial, favorecer su desarrollo, crecimiento e internacionalización y fomentar la cultura emprendedora y un entorno favorable a la actividad económica. Tiene un ámbito de aplicación amplio y horizontal, al considerarse emprendedores todas las personas físicas y jurídicas que desarrollen una actividad económica productiva.

(Approved as a Draft Law by the Council of Ministers on Friday, May 24th, 2013)

The parliamentary procedure is now starting for it to be converted into a Law. It concerns a comprehensive and integral law, that encompasses the work of practically all the ministerial departments, which aims to facilitate all entrepreneurial and business activity: from the formation of a company and its tax system, to funding support and the need to make the relationship between businesses and Public Administrations more fluid, and, where applicable, to provide more facilities when solving business’ difficulties through different means associated with what is called a “second opportunity”.

It is one of the most important structural reforms of the Government’s reform programme. It complements Royal Decree Law of February 22nd, 2013 on measures for employment support for entrepreneurs and encouraging growth and creation of employment, through which certain measures were passed for support for entrepreneurs, announced by the president of the Government in the Debate on the State of the Nation.

The aim of the future Law is to support entrepreneurs and business activity, favour its development, growth and internationalisation and promote entrepreneurial culture and a favourable environment for economic activity. It has a wide and horizontal scope of applicability, as it considers entrepreneurs as all natural and legal persons who develop a productive economic activity.

(Approved as a Draft Law by the Council of Ministers on Friday, May 24th, 2013)

The parliamentary procedure is now starting for it to be converted into a Law. It concerns a comprehensive and integral law, that encompasses the work of practically all the ministerial departments, which aims to facilitate all entrepreneurial and business activity: from the formation of a company and its tax system, to funding support and the need to make the relationship between businesses and Public Administrations more fluid, and, where applicable, to provide more facilities when solving business’ difficulties through different means associated with what is called a “second opportunity”.

It is one of the most important structural reforms of the Government’s reform programme. It complements Royal Decree Law of February 22nd, 2013 on measures for employment support for entrepreneurs and encouraging growth and creation of employment, through which certain measures were passed for support for entrepreneurs, announced by the president of the Government in the Debate on the State of the Nation.

The aim of the future Law is to support entrepreneurs and business activity, favour its development, growth and internationalisation and promote entrepreneurial culture and a favourable environment for economic activity. It has a wide and horizontal scope of applicability, as it considers entrepreneurs as all natural and legal persons who develop a productive economic activity.

APOYO A LA INICIATIVA EMPRENDEDORA

Se incluyen una serie de medidas para impulsar la cultura emprendedora y para facilitar el inicio de actividades empresariales.

Emprendimiento en etapas educativas

En el ámbito educativo, y en línea con el Proyecto de Ley Orgánica para la Mejora de la Calidad Educativa, se garantizará que los currículos en la enseñanza primaria y secundaria incorporen competencias en emprendimiento; se fomentará un mayor acercamiento de la universidad a la cultura emprendedora y se asegurará que los profesores cuentan con formación en materia de emprendimiento.

Empresario de Responsabilidad Limitada

Se crea una nueva figura mercantil, el Emprendedor de Responsabilidad Limitada (ERL), a través de la cual la responsabilidad derivada de sus deudas empresariales no afectará a su vivienda habitual, si su valor no supera los trescientos mil euros. Para proteger debidamente a los acreedores y a la seguridad del tráfico jurídico, se arbitran las oportunas medidas de publicidad registral de la limitación de responsabilidad.

No obstante, la limitación de responsabilidad no se aplicará respecto a las deudas de Derecho Público, ni cuando el empresario hubiese actuado fraudulentamente o con negligencia grave en el cumplimiento de sus obligaciones con terceros.

Sociedad Limitada de Formación Sucesiva: nuevo subtipo societario

Para abaratar el coste inicial de constituir una sociedad, se permite la creación de sociedades con capital inferior a tres mil euros, con un régimen idéntico al de las sociedades de responsabilidad limitada, salvo determinadas condiciones específicas tendentes a proteger los intereses de terceros, entre las cuales destacan los límites a la retribución de socios y administradores, así como la responsabilidad solidaria de los socios en caso de liquidación.

Puntos de Atención al Emprendedor

Al objeto de agilizar el inicio de la actividad de los emprendedores, se crean los Puntos de Atención al Emprendedor, que serán ventanillas únicas a través de las que se podrán realizar los trámites para el inicio, ejercicio y cese de la actividad empresarial. El Punto de Atención al Emprendedor electrónico del Ministerio de Industria, Energía y Turismo prestará la totalidad de los servicios previstos en la Ley. Este punto nace de la integración de las múltiples ventanillas que hoy existen de asistencia en el inicio de la actividad a nivel estatal: Puntos de Asesoramiento e Inicio de la Tramitación, Ventanillas Únicas Empresariales y la Ventanilla Única de la Directiva de Servicios. Por otro lado, los emprendedores podrán constituirse de forma ágil, tanto como empresarios de responsabilidad limitada, como en forma societaria, a través de modelos simplificados y sistemas telemáticos.

Segunda oportunidad: acuerdo extrajudicial de pagos

Para facilitar la segunda oportunidad, se prevé un mecanismo de negociación extrajudicial de deudas de empresarios, ya sean personas físicas o jurídicas, similar a los existentes en los países de nuestro entorno. El procedimiento es muy flexible y se sustancia, extrajudicialmente, en breves plazos ante un registrador mercantil o un notario, si bien éstos se limitarán a designar un profesional idóneo e independiente que impulse la avenencia y a asegurar que se cumplan los requisitos de publicación y publicidad registral necesarios para llevar a buen término los fines perseguidos con el arreglo.

Se prevé que puedan pactarse quitas de hasta el 25 por 100 de los créditos y esperas de hasta tres años, salvo en caso de créditos de Derecho Público, donde la indisponibilidad de éstos sólo permite el aplazamiento del pago. Tampoco podrán verse afectados aquellos préstamos y créditos que tienen una garantía especialísima como la garantía real, que no podrán, de la misma manera que los de Derecho Público, verse afectados por el acuerdo extrajudicial.

Por último, y para autónomos y para el nuevo Emprendedor de Responsabilidad Limitada, se prevé la ampliación, de uno a dos años, del plazo que debe mediar entre la notificación de la primera diligencia de embargo y la realización material de la subasta, el concurso o cualquier otro medio administrativo de enajenación, cuando afecte a la residencia habitual de un autónomo, en caso de procedimientos de embargo por deudas tributarias o con la Seguridad Social.

 

MEDIDAS FISCALES Y EN MATERIA DE SEGURIDAD SOCIAL DE APOYO AL EMPRENDEDOR.

 

IVA de caja

Para paliar los problemas de liquidez y de acceso al crédito de las empresas, se crea, en el ámbito del Impuesto sobre el Valor Añadido, un régimen especial del criterio de caja.

Podrán acogerse a este régimen los sujetos pasivos cuyo volumen de operaciones no supere los dos millones de euros, régimen conforme al cual los sujetos pasivos del Impuesto pueden optar por un sistema que retrasa el devengo y la consiguiente declaración e ingreso del IVA repercutido en la mayoría de sus operaciones comerciales hasta el momento del cobro, total o parcial, a sus clientes.

No obstante, los sujetos pasivos verán retardada, igualmente, la deducción del IVA soportado en sus adquisiciones hasta el momento en que efectúen el pago de estas a sus proveedores.

Incentivos a la inversión de beneficios

Las empresas con un volumen de negocio inferior a diez millones podrán deducirse hasta un 10 por 100 de los beneficios obtenidos en el período impositivo que se reinviertan en la actividad económica.

Incentivos fiscales a la calidad del crecimiento a través de la innovación empresarial:

Se permite que las deducciones por I+D+i que puedan aplicarse en un ejercicio puedan recuperarse mediante un sistema único en España de devoluciones. Esta deducción no queda sometida a ningún límite en la cuota íntegra del Impuesto sobre Sociedades y, en su caso, se procederá al abono de la deducción por I+D, con un límite máximo conjunto de tres millones de euros anuales, si bien con una tasa de descuento respecto al importe inicialmente previsto de la deducción, siempre que se mantengan las actividades de I+D y el empleo.

Incentivos fiscales para la cesión de activos intangibles (“Patent Box”)

Se modifica el régimen fiscal aplicable a las rentas procedentes de determinados activos intangibles. En este sentido, se pretende que el incentivo recaiga sobre la renta neta derivada del activo cedido y no sobre los ingresos procedentes del mismo. Se amplía, por otra parte, la aplicación del régimen fiscal, para los activos adquiridos, bajo ciertas limitaciones, y para los supuestos de transmisión de los activos intangibles.

Incentivos fiscales a los “business angels”

Con el objeto de favorecer la captación por empresas, de nueva o reciente creación, de fondos propios procedentes de contribuyentes que, además del capital financiero, aporten sus conocimientos empresariales o profesionales adecuados para el desarrollo de la sociedad en la que invierten, inversor de proximidad o “business angel”, o de aquellos que sólo estén interesados en aportar capital, “capital semilla”, se establece un nuevo incentivo fiscal en el Impuesto sobre la Renta de las Personas Físicas.

  • Deducción del 20 por 100 en la cuota estatal en el IRPF con ocasión de la inversión realizada al entrar en la sociedad. La base máxima de la deducción será de veinte mil euros anuales.
  • Exención total de la plusvalía al salir de la sociedad, siempre y cuando se reinvierta en otra entidad de nueva o reciente creación

Cotizaciones sociales a los emprendedores en situación de pluriactividad

Para no penalizar excesivamente a aquellos trabajadores que coticen en el Régimen General y que deben cotizar también en otro Régimen a tiempo completo cuando realizan una actividad económica alternativa, se reducen las cuotas de la Seguridad Social de forma que aliviaría la actual penalización y se incentivaría la pluriactividad, estimulando nuevas altas en el Régimen Especial de Trabajadores Autónomos.

 

MEDIDAS PARA APOYAR LA FINANCIACIÓN DE LOS EMPRENDEDORES.

 

Se modifica la Ley Concursal en la materia preconcursal de los acuerdos de refinanciación con un doble propósito: de una parte, para regular de una manera más completa y más flexible el procedimiento registral de designación de los expertos; de otra parte, para incluir una regla más flexible y más clara del cómputo de la mayoría del pasivo que suscribe el acuerdo y exigible como requisito legal mínimo para su potestativa homologación judicial.

Adicionalmente, se perfecciona el marco regulatorio de las cédulas de internacionalización, añadiendo más claridad a los activos que sirven como cobertura. Por otro lado, se crea un nuevo instrumento, los “bonos de internacionalización”, con el fin de añadir mayor flexibilidad a la emisión de títulos que tengan como cobertura préstamos vinculados a la internacionalización.

 

MEDIDAS PARA FOMENTAR EL CRECIMIENTO EMPRESARIAL.

 

Reducción de cargas administrativas

Con carácter general, se revisará el clima de negocios a través de la mejora de la regulación de las actividades económicas. Además, se establece que, para reducir las cargas administrativas a las que se enfrentan los emprendedores, las Administraciones Públicas deberán asegurarse de eliminar, al menos, una carga administrativa por cada una que introduzcan y siempre a coste equivalente.

Se reducen las cargas estadísticas, de forma que se garantiza que los empresarios no deban contestar más de una encuesta para el Instituto Nacional de Estadística durante el primer año de actividad, si tienen menos de cincuenta trabajadores.

En materia laboral, se amplían los supuestos en que las Pymes podrán asumir directamente la prevención de riesgos laborales, en caso de empresarios con un único centro de trabajo y hasta veinticinco trabajadores.

Asimismo, se elimina la obligación de que las empresas tengan, en cada centro de trabajo, un libro de visitas a disposición de los funcionarios de la Inspección de Trabajo y Seguridad Social y de los funcionarios técnicos habilitados para el ejercicio de actuaciones comprobatorias en materia de prevención de riesgos laborales. En su lugar, será la Inspección de Trabajo la que se encargue de mantener esa información por medios electrónicos.

Por otro lado, se abre la posibilidad de que los empresarios legalicen telemáticamente sus libros obligatorios en el Registro Mercantil.

En el ámbito de las actividades de servicios, se modifica la Ley de medidas urgentes de liberalización del comercio y de determinados servicios, del 26 de diciembre de 2012, para ampliar el umbral de superficie máxima de los establecimientos que estarán exentos de licencia municipal, así como para ampliar la lista de actividades exentas de solicitar una licencia municipal.

En el ámbito de la contabilidad, se racionalizan las exigencias de información económico-financiera de las empresas. Se elevan los umbrales máximos para la formulación del balance abreviado, para ampliar el número de empresas que pueden formular el balance, la memoria y el estado de cambios en el patrimonio neto abreviados y que están exentos de formular el estado de flujos de efectivo.

Eliminación de obstáculos al acceso de los emprendedores a la contratación pública

En primer lugar, para poner en contacto a pequeños emprendedores que se dediquen a una misma actividad, se prevé la posibilidad de que los empresarios puedan darse de alta en el Registro Oficial de Licitadores y Empresas Clasificadas del Estado.

En segundo lugar, se elevan los umbrales para la exigencia de la clasificación en los contratos de obras y de servicios, que viene siendo una traba para muchas empresas, especialmente para aquellas de menor tamaño o de nueva creación, ya que no logran cumplir con todos los requisitos exigidos para obtener la correspondiente clasificación.

En particular, en los contratos de obras el umbral se eleva en 150.000 euros, pasando de 350.000 euros a 500.000 euros, y en 80.000 euros para los contratos de servicios, pasando de 120.000 a 200.000 euros.

En tercer lugar, se prevé que la garantía en los contratos de obra pueda constituirse mediante retención en el precio y se acortan los plazos para la devolución de garantías, pasando de doce meses a seis meses en caso de que la empresa adjudicataria sea una pequeña y mediana empresa.

Por último, con el fin de luchar contra la morosidad se reduce de ocho a seis meses el plazo de demora para solicitar la resolución del contrato en caso de que la empresa adjudicataria sea una Pyme, y se incluye un nuevo artículo para establecer un mayor control de los pagos que los contratistas adjudicatarios deben hacer a los subcontratistas.

 

FOMENTO DE LA INTERNACIONALIZACIÓN DE LA EMPRESA Y LA ECONOMÍA ESPAÑOLAS

 

Marco institucional e instrumentos de apoyo a la internacionalización

Se refuerza el marco institucional de fomento a la internacionalización, así como algunos de los principales instrumentos financieros de apoyo a la internacionalización.

Con carácter bienal, el Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad elaborará un Plan Estratégico de Internacionalización de la Economía Española, que incluirá las prioridades geográficas y sectoriales y los planes de actuación de los organismos con competencias en la materia. Se establecerá un sistema de evaluación y control de los instrumentos que integran el Plan, cuyos resultados serán públicos y servirán para futuras modificaciones normativas y de gestión.

Por otro lado, se potencia la actuación de la red exterior y territorial del Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, y se fortalece el papel de ICEX España Exportación e Inversiones como organismo de impulso de la internacionalización y competitividad de las empresas españolas en todas las fases de este proceso.

En cuanto a las reformas de los instrumentos financieros de apoyo a la internacionalización, se mejoran el diseño del Fondo para Inversiones en el Exterior (FIEX), el Fondo para la Internacionalización de la Empresa (FIEM) y el Convenio de Ajuste Recíproco de Intereses (CARI).

Por último, se desarrollan los mecanismos necesarios para que las empresas españolas tengan un mayor acceso a los proyectos abiertos a concurso por Instituciones Financieras Internacionales en otros países.

Atracción de talento e inversión: nuevo régimen de visados y autorizaciones de residencia

Se facilita y agiliza la concesión de permisos de residencia, por razones de interés económico, a través de un procedimiento ágil y rápido, ante una única autoridad, a las personas físicas que se califiquen como:

  1. Inversores que realicen una inversión económica significativa o destinada a proyectos empresariales considerados y acreditados como de interés general; por ejemplo, por su impacto en la creación de puestos de trabajo o por su aportación a la innovación científica y/o tecnológica.
  2. Emprendedores respecto de una actividad de carácter innovador con especial interés económico. Se valorará prioritariamente la creación de empleo, además del perfil profesional del solicitante, el plan de negocio o el valor añadido para la economía española.
  3. Profesionales altamente cualificados:
    • Personal directivo, altamente cualificado o que forme parte de un proyecto empresarial de interés general.
    • Postgraduados de universidades y escuelas de negocio de reconocido prestigio.
    • Profesionales que deseen realizar actividades de investigación, desarrollo e innovación en entidades públicas o privadas.
  1. Traslado intra-empresarial: extranjeros que se desplacen a España en el marco de una relación laboral, profesional o por motivos de formación profesional, por una duración igual a la del traslado.

 

SUPPORT FOR ENTREPRENEURIAL INITIATIVE

A series of measures are included in order to drive an entrepreneurial culture and facilitate the starting up of business activities.

Entrepreneurship in stages of education

In an educational environment, and in line with the Draft Organic Law for the Improvement in the Quality of Education, it will guarantee that the educational curriculum for primary and secondary school will incorporate skills in entrepreneurship. It will also better promote universities having an entrepreneurial culture and will make sure that teachers have training in entrepreneurship.

Limited Liability Entrepreneur

The Law creates a new commercial figure, the Limited Liability Entrepreneur (ERL, in Spanish), through which the liability that results from entrepreneurial debts will not affect the main residence of the entrepreneur, if the value is not above €300,000 euros.  In order to duly protect the creditors and legal transaction security, appropriate registration publicity measures for limitation of liability are introduced.

However, limitation of liability will not be applied when it comes to Public Law debts, or when the entrepreneur has acted fraudulently or with serious negligence towards the compliance with third party obligations.

Limited Society of Subsequent Formation: a new company subtype

To reduce the initial costs of starting up a company, the creation of companies with less than €3000 euros of capital is allowed, with a system identical to limited liability companies, except for certain specific conditions aimed at protecting third party interests, amongst which the limits of remuneration of members and administrators is highlighted, as well as several liability of the members in case of liquidation.

Points for Attention for the Entrepreneur

With the aim of accelerating the start-up of activity of entrepreneurs, Points for Attention for the Entrepreneurs have been created. These will be one-stop shops through which the processes of starting up, putting into practice and ending a business activity may be carried out.  The electronic Point for Attention for the Entrepreneur from the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism will provide all services included within the Law. This point comes from the integration of the many one-stop shops that exist for the assistance of the start-up of state level activity.  Advisory and Procedure Initiation Points, One-stop Business Shops and the One-stop Shop for the Services Directive.  On the other hand, the entrepreneurs can be set up quickly, both limited liability businesses and, as in corporate form, through simplified models and telematic systems.

Second opportunity: extra-judicial payment agreement

In order to facilitate a second opportunity, an extra-judicial negotiation mechanism for business debt was planned, whether for natural or legal persons, similar to those that already exist in neighbouring countries. The process is very flexible and is substantiated, extra-judicially, in short time-frames before a mercantile registrar or a notary, although they may be limited to establishing a suitable and independent professional that encourages compromise and makes sure that the registration publicity and publication necessary to achieve the objectives desired for the arrangement are fulfilled.

It is planned that acquittance can be agreed upon of up to 25% of the credits and postponement of up to three years, except in the case of Public Law credits, where the unavailability of them only allows for a postponement of the payment. The loans and credits that have a special guarantee such as collateral will not be able, in the same way as with Public Law, to be affected by the extra-judicial agreement.

Lastly, and for the self-employed and the new Limited Liability Entrepreneur, an extension of one or two years is planned, of the time-frame in which one must mediate between the notification of the first attachment proceeding and the material realization of the auction, tender, or any other administrative means of disposal, when it affects the habitual residence of the self-employed person, in case of seizure proceedings due to tax debts or Social Security.

 

TAX AND SOCIAL SECURITY MEASURES FOR SUPPORT FOR ENTREPRENEURS.

Cashed VAT (IVA de Caja)

To ease problems of liquidity and access to credit of the businesses, a special cash basis regime is created, in the scope of Value Added Tax.

Taxpayers whose volume of operations does not exceed two million euros are able to use this regime. It is a regime whereby the tax payers can opt for a system that delays the amount due and the consequent declaration and deposit of the output tax in most of the commercial transactions until receipt of the total or partial amount charged to the clients.

However, tax payers will equally see a delay in the deduction of input VAT in their acquisitions until the payment is made to the providers.

Incentives for the investment of profits

Businesses with a turnover of less than 10 million may deduct up to 10% of the profits obtained in the tax period that is reinvested into economic activity.

Tax incentives for the quality of growth through business innovation:

Deductions allowed by I+D+i (research, development and innovation) that can be applied to an exercise can be recovered through a unique system in Spain for returns.  This deduction is not subject to any limit of the whole payment of Corporation Tax and, where relevant, the deduction for I+D (research and development) shall be paid, with a maximum combined limit of three million euros a year, although with a discount rate in relation to the amount initially planned from deduction, as long as the I+D activities and job are maintained.

Tax incentives for the transfer of intangible assets (Patent Box)

The tax system applicable to income from certain intangible assets is modified. In this respect, the aim is that the incentive goes to the net value derived from the transferred asset and not the income from it.  Furthermore, the application of the tax system is extended, for the acquired assets, under certain limitations, and for cases of transmission of the intangible assets.

Tax incentives for business angels.

With the aim of favouring new or recently created businesses with own funds coming from tax payers that, as well as the financial capital, can contribute their relevant business or professional knowledge for the development of a company in which they invest; “business angel”, or those that are only interested in providing capital; “seed capital”, a new tax incentive is established for Personal Income Tax.

  • Deduction of 20% in the state fee for Personal Income Tax on the occasion of the investment made when entering the company. The maximum basis for deduction will be €20,000 a year.
  • Total exemption from the value added when leaving a company, as long as it is reinvested in another new or recently created entity.

Social contributions to entrepreneurs with pluriactivity

In order to not excessively penalize those workers that pay contributions in the General Regime and that must also contribute to another Regime on a full-time basis as they carry out an alternative economic activity, Social Security fees are reduced so that the current penalization is relieved and pluriactivity is encouraged, stimulating new memberships for the Special Regime for Self-employed Workers.

 

MEASURES FOR FUNDING SUPPORT FOR ENTREPRENEURS.

 

The insolvency law is modified for pre-bankruptcy for the refinancing agreements with a dual-purpose: on the one hand, to more comprehensively and flexibly regulate the registration procedure for appointing experts; on the other hand, to include a more flexible and clear rule for calculating the majority of the subject that has subscribed to the agreement and necessary as a minimum legal requisite for the optional approval by the courts.

Additionally, the regulatory framework for internationalization documents is perfected, making the assets that may be used as coverage more clear. On the other hand, a new instrument has been created: “internationalisation bonds”. This aims to add more flexibility to the issuing of securities that have coverage of loans linked to internationalisation.

 

MEASURES FOR PROMOTING BUSINESS GROWTH.

 

Reduction of administrative burdens

Business climate will be revised in general by improving the regulation of economic activities. Also, it is established that, in order to reduce administrative burdens that entrepreneurs are faced with, Public Administrations must make sure they eliminate at least one administrative burden for every one that is introduced and always at an equivalent cost.

Statistical burdens are reduced in order to guarantee that entrepreneurs do not have to answer more than one survey for the National Institute of Statistics during the first year of activity, if there are less than 50 employees.

In terms of work, cases where SMEs can directly take on occupational risk prevention are expanded, for entrepreneurs with one workplace and up to 20 employees.

Additionally, the obligation for businesses to have, in every workplace, a visitor’s book available from the officials of the Inspectorate of Work and Social Security and the technical officials trained to carry out occupational risk prevention checks, is eliminated. Instead, the Labour Inspectorate will be in charge of keeping this information through electronic medium.

On the other hand, the possibility is created for entrepreneurs to telematically legalize their compulsory bookkeeping on the Mercantile Registrar.

In the area of service activities, the Law for urgent measures for liberalisation of trade and certain services of December 26th, 2012, has been modified in order to expand the maximum surface area threshold for the establishments that will be exempt from the municipal licence, as well as to extend the list of activities exempt from requesting a municipal licence.

When it comes to accounts, the need for economic-financial information from businesses is rationalized.  The maximum thresholds for the formulation of an abbreviated balance sheet are raised, in order to expand the number of businesses that can formulate the abbreviated balance, report and statement of changes in equity and that are exempt from formulating the state of cash flow.

Elimination of obstacles for entrepreneurs to access public procurement

Firstly, in order to put small entrepreneurs that carry out the same activity in contact with each other, it is expected that there will be the possibility of business people being able to become a member of the Official Register of Tenderers and Classified Companies of the State.

Secondly, thresholds for the need for classification of work and service contracts are raised, which has been an obstacle for many businesses, especially smaller or recently created ones, as they are not able to fulfil all the requirements necessary in order to obtain the corresponding classification.

The threshold for the work contracts in particular is raised by €150,000, going from €350,000 euros to €500,000 euros, and by €80,000 for service contracts, going from €120,000 to €200,000.

Thirdly, it is expected that the security for work contracts can be made through a retention in price and that time-frames for the returning of securities, going from twelve to six months where the contracted company is a small or medium enterprise.

Lastly, with the aim of fighting against late payments, the delay period to request the termination of the contract is reduced from eight to six months for contracted companies who are SMEs. There is also another article included to establish higher controls over payments that the successful contractors must make to the subcontractors.

PROMOTION OF INTERNATIONALISATION FOR SPANISH BUSINESSES AND ECONOMY

 

Institutional framework and instruments for support for internationalisation

The institutional framework for promoting internationalisation is reinforced, as well as some of the main financial instrument for support for internationalisation.

On a biennial basis, the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness will produce a Strategic Plan for the Internalisation of the Spanish Economy, which will include geographical and sectorial priorities and the action plans for the agencies involved in the field.  A system of evaluation and control of instruments will be established that are part of the Plan. Results of these will be made public and may be used for future regulatory modifications and management.

On the other hand, the performance of the foreign and territorial network of the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness is strengthened, as is the role of ICEX España Exportación e Inversiones (Spanish Institute of Foreign Trade, Exports and Investment) as a driving body for internationalization and competitiveness for Spanish businesses in every stage of the process.

In relation to reforms for financial instruments for support for internationalisation, the design of the Fund for Foreign Investment (FIEX), the Fund for Internalisation of Companies (FIEM) and the Reciprocal Interest Adjustment Contract (CARI), is to be improved.

Lastly, the necessary mechanisms will be developed for Spanish companies to have better access to projects open for competition for International Financial Institutions in other countries.

Talent attraction and investment: a new system for visas and residence permits.

The authorization of residence permits will be made quicker and easier, on grounds of economic interest, through a fast process, before just one authority, for natural persons that are qualified as:

  1. Investors that make significant economic investments or that are intended for entrepreneurial projects considered and accredited as of general interest; for example, for its impact on the creation of employment, or for its contribution to scientific and/or technological innovation.
  2. Entrepreneurs of an innovative activity with special economic interest. Priorities will be the creation of employment, as well as the professional profile of the applicant, the business plan and the value added to the Spanish economy.
  3. Highly qualified professionals:
    • Managerial staff that are highly qualified or that form part of an entrepreneurial project of general interest.
    • Postgraduates from prestigious universities and business schools.
    • Professionals that want to carry out research, development and innovation activities in public or private entities.
  1. Intra-entrepreneurial transfer: people from overseas who want to move to Spain for work, professional reasons or for professional training, lasting the same amount of time of the transfer.

SUPPORT FOR ENTREPRENEURIAL INITIATIVE

A series of measures are included in order to drive an entrepreneurial culture and facilitate the starting up of business activities.

Entrepreneurship in stages of education

In an educational environment, and in line with the Draft Organic Law for the Improvement in the Quality of Education, it will guarantee that the educational curriculum for primary and secondary school will incorporate skills in entrepreneurship. It will also better promote universities having an entrepreneurial culture and will make sure that teachers have training in entrepreneurship.

Limited Liability Entrepreneur

The Law creates a new commercial figure, the Limited Liability Entrepreneur (ERL, in Spanish), through which the liability that results from entrepreneurial debts will not affect the main residence of the entrepreneur, if the value is not above €300,000 euros.  In order to duly protect the creditors and legal transaction security, appropriate registration publicity measures for limitation of liability are introduced.

However, limitation of liability will not be applied when it comes to Public Law debts, or when the entrepreneur has acted fraudulently or with serious negligence towards the compliance with third party obligations.

Limited Society of Subsequent Formation: a new company subtype

To reduce the initial costs of starting up a company, the creation of companies with less than €3000 euros of capital is allowed, with a system identical to limited liability companies, except for certain specific conditions aimed at protecting third party interests, amongst which the limits of remuneration of members and administrators is highlighted, as well as several liability of the members in case of liquidation.

Points for Attention for the Entrepreneur

With the aim of accelerating the start-up of activity of entrepreneurs, Points for Attention for the Entrepreneurs have been created. These will be one-stop shops through which the processes of starting up, putting into practice and ending a business activity may be carried out.  The electronic Point for Attention for the Entrepreneur from the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism will provide all services included within the Law. This point comes from the integration of the many one-stop shops that exist for the assistance of the start-up of state level activity.  Advisory and Procedure Initiation Points, One-stop Business Shops and the One-stop Shop for the Services Directive.  On the other hand, the entrepreneurs can be set up quickly, both limited liability businesses and, as in corporate form, through simplified models and telematic systems.

Second opportunity: extra-judicial payment agreement

In order to facilitate a second opportunity, an extra-judicial negotiation mechanism for business debt was planned, whether for natural or legal persons, similar to those that already exist in neighbouring countries. The process is very flexible and is substantiated, extra-judicially, in short time-frames before a mercantile registrar or a notary, although they may be limited to establishing a suitable and independent professional that encourages compromise and makes sure that the registration publicity and publication necessary to achieve the objectives desired for the arrangement are fulfilled.

It is planned that acquittance can be agreed upon of up to 25% of the credits and postponement of up to three years, except in the case of Public Law credits, where the unavailability of them only allows for a postponement of the payment. The loans and credits that have a special guarantee such as collateral will not be able, in the same way as with Public Law, to be affected by the extra-judicial agreement.

Lastly, and for the self-employed and the new Limited Liability Entrepreneur, an extension of one or two years is planned, of the time-frame in which one must mediate between the notification of the first attachment proceeding and the material realization of the auction, tender, or any other administrative means of disposal, when it affects the habitual residence of the self-employed person, in case of seizure proceedings due to tax debts or Social Security.

 

TAX AND SOCIAL SECURITY MEASURES FOR SUPPORT FOR ENTREPRENEURS.

Cashed VAT (IVA de Caja)

To ease problems of liquidity and access to credit of the businesses, a special cash basis regime is created, in the scope of Value Added Tax.

Taxpayers whose volume of operations does not exceed two million euros are able to use this regime. It is a regime whereby the tax payers can opt for a system that delays the amount due and the consequent declaration and deposit of the output tax in most of the commercial transactions until receipt of the total or partial amount charged to the clients.

However, tax payers will equally see a delay in the deduction of input VAT in their acquisitions until the payment is made to the providers.

Incentives for the investment of profits

Businesses with a turnover of less than 10 million may deduct up to 10% of the profits obtained in the tax period that is reinvested into economic activity.

Tax incentives for the quality of growth through business innovation:

Deductions allowed by I+D+i (research, development and innovation) that can be applied to an exercise can be recovered through a unique system in Spain for returns.  This deduction is not subject to any limit of the whole payment of Corporation Tax and, where relevant, the deduction for I+D (research and development) shall be paid, with a maximum combined limit of three million euros a year, although with a discount rate in relation to the amount initially planned from deduction, as long as the I+D activities and job are maintained.

Tax incentives for the transfer of intangible assets (Patent Box)

The tax system applicable to income from certain intangible assets is modified. In this respect, the aim is that the incentive goes to the net value derived from the transferred asset and not the income from it.  Furthermore, the application of the tax system is extended, for the acquired assets, under certain limitations, and for cases of transmission of the intangible assets.

Tax incentives for business angels.

With the aim of favouring new or recently created businesses with own funds coming from tax payers that, as well as the financial capital, can contribute their relevant business or professional knowledge for the development of a company in which they invest; “business angel”, or those that are only interested in providing capital; “seed capital”, a new tax incentive is established for Personal Income Tax.

  • Deduction of 20% in the state fee for Personal Income Tax on the occasion of the investment made when entering the company. The maximum basis for deduction will be €20,000 a year.
  • Total exemption from the value added when leaving a company, as long as it is reinvested in another new or recently created entity.

Social contributions to entrepreneurs with pluriactivity

In order to not excessively penalize those workers that pay contributions in the General Regime and that must also contribute to another Regime on a full-time basis as they carry out an alternative economic activity, Social Security fees are reduced so that the current penalization is relieved and pluriactivity is encouraged, stimulating new memberships for the Special Regime for Self-employed Workers.

 

MEASURES FOR FUNDING SUPPORT FOR ENTREPRENEURS.

 

The insolvency law is modified for pre-bankruptcy for the refinancing agreements with a dual-purpose: on the one hand, to more comprehensively and flexibly regulate the registration procedure for appointing experts; on the other hand, to include a more flexible and clear rule for calculating the majority of the subject that has subscribed to the agreement and necessary as a minimum legal requisite for the optional approval by the courts.

Additionally, the regulatory framework for internationalization documents is perfected, making the assets that may be used as coverage more clear. On the other hand, a new instrument has been created: “internationalisation bonds”. This aims to add more flexibility to the issuing of securities that have coverage of loans linked to internationalisation.

 

MEASURES FOR PROMOTING BUSINESS GROWTH.

 

Reduction of administrative burdens

Business climate will be revised in general by improving the regulation of economic activities. Also, it is established that, in order to reduce administrative burdens that entrepreneurs are faced with, Public Administrations must make sure they eliminate at least one administrative burden for every one that is introduced and always at an equivalent cost.

Statistical burdens are reduced in order to guarantee that entrepreneurs do not have to answer more than one survey for the National Institute of Statistics during the first year of activity, if there are less than 50 employees.

In terms of work, cases where SMEs can directly take on occupational risk prevention are expanded, for entrepreneurs with one workplace and up to 20 employees.

Additionally, the obligation for businesses to have, in every workplace, a visitor’s book available from the officials of the Inspectorate of Work and Social Security and the technical officials trained to carry out occupational risk prevention checks, is eliminated. Instead, the Labour Inspectorate will be in charge of keeping this information through electronic medium.

On the other hand, the possibility is created for entrepreneurs to telematically legalize their compulsory bookkeeping on the Mercantile Registrar.

In the area of service activities, the Law for urgent measures for liberalisation of trade and certain services of December 26th, 2012, has been modified in order to expand the maximum surface area threshold for the establishments that will be exempt from the municipal licence, as well as to extend the list of activities exempt from requesting a municipal licence.

When it comes to accounts, the need for economic-financial information from businesses is rationalized.  The maximum thresholds for the formulation of an abbreviated balance sheet are raised, in order to expand the number of businesses that can formulate the abbreviated balance, report and statement of changes in equity and that are exempt from formulating the state of cash flow.

Elimination of obstacles for entrepreneurs to access public procurement

Firstly, in order to put small entrepreneurs that carry out the same activity in contact with each other, it is expected that there will be the possibility of business people being able to become a member of the Official Register of Tenderers and Classified Companies of the State.

Secondly, thresholds for the need for classification of work and service contracts are raised, which has been an obstacle for many businesses, especially smaller or recently created ones, as they are not able to fulfil all the requirements necessary in order to obtain the corresponding classification.

The threshold for the work contracts in particular is raised by €150,000, going from €350,000 euros to €500,000 euros, and by €80,000 for service contracts, going from €120,000 to €200,000.

Thirdly, it is expected that the security for work contracts can be made through a retention in price and that time-frames for the returning of securities, going from twelve to six months where the contracted company is a small or medium enterprise.

Lastly, with the aim of fighting against late payments, the delay period to request the termination of the contract is reduced from eight to six months for contracted companies who are SMEs. There is also another article included to establish higher controls over payments that the successful contractors must make to the subcontractors.

PROMOTION OF INTERNATIONALISATION FOR SPANISH BUSINESSES AND ECONOMY

 

Institutional framework and instruments for support for internationalisation

The institutional framework for promoting internationalisation is reinforced, as well as some of the main financial instrument for support for internationalisation.

On a biennial basis, the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness will produce a Strategic Plan for the Internalisation of the Spanish Economy, which will include geographical and sectorial priorities and the action plans for the agencies involved in the field.  A system of evaluation and control of instruments will be established that are part of the Plan. Results of these will be made public and may be used for future regulatory modifications and management.

On the other hand, the performance of the foreign and territorial network of the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness is strengthened, as is the role of ICEX España Exportación e Inversiones (Spanish Institute of Foreign Trade, Exports and Investment) as a driving body for internationalization and competitiveness for Spanish businesses in every stage of the process.

In relation to reforms for financial instruments for support for internationalisation, the design of the Fund for Foreign Investment (FIEX), the Fund for Internalisation of Companies (FIEM) and the Reciprocal Interest Adjustment Contract (CARI), is to be improved.

Lastly, the necessary mechanisms will be developed for Spanish companies to have better access to projects open for competition for International Financial Institutions in other countries.

Talent attraction and investment: a new system for visas and residence permits.

The authorization of residence permits will be made quicker and easier, on grounds of economic interest, through a fast process, before just one authority, for natural persons that are qualified as:

  1. Investors that make significant economic investments or that are intended for entrepreneurial projects considered and accredited as of general interest; for example, for its impact on the creation of employment, or for its contribution to scientific and/or technological innovation.
  2. Entrepreneurs of an innovative activity with special economic interest. Priorities will be the creation of employment, as well as the professional profile of the applicant, the business plan and the value added to the Spanish economy.
  3. Highly qualified professionals:
    • Managerial staff that are highly qualified or that form part of an entrepreneurial project of general interest.
    • Postgraduates from prestigious universities and business schools.
    • Professionals that want to carry out research, development and innovation activities in public or private entities.
  1. Intra-entrepreneurial transfer: people from overseas who want to move to Spain for work, professional reasons or for professional training, lasting the same amount of time of the transfer.